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Handling values - Perl

In the last article, we took a look at command line options and how we could read them in Perl using the Getopt::Std module. For many simple applications, that article covers all that you need to make use of command line options. When you need more command line options, you can make use of the Getopt::Long module, which is the subject of this article.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. Using Getopt::Long: More Command Line Options in Perl
  2. Handling values
  3. Optional values and multiple values
  4. Responding to command line arguments
By: Peyton McCullough
Rating: starstarstarstarstar / 2
May 19, 2009

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What if we need for a command line option to take a value, though? This behavior is, of course, supported by the module, but we need to specify that a command line option can take a value. We also need to specify what kind of value the option can take. 

Suppose we want to add a command line option to our program called “server.” This option will take a value, the address of some server. This value will, of course, be a string. In order to specify all of this, we simply need to add a little bit to the option's specifications (now you know why they are specifications, not names). All we need to add is an equals sign followed by the letter s, which indicates that we're looking for a string:

 

GetOptions('force' =>  $force, 'server=s' =>  $server);

 

Before this, though, we need to declare the variable and give it a default value:

 

my $server = '';

 

You should also adjust the program so that it prints out the value of the option. 

Now the program can be called with the new command line option:

 

$ program --server=devshed.com

 

What happens if we need spaces in the string, though? In that case, we would simply surround the string with quotation marks. For example, consider a command line option named “name” that takes the name of a person:

 

$ program --name=”John Smith”

 

We can specify other types of values, too: integers, floating point numbers and “extended integers.” This last type simply corresponds to integers as might be used in Perl. That is, they can be specified in hexadecimal, binary, or whatever. In order to specify that an option takes an integer value, use i, and in order to specify that an option takes a floating point value, use f. Extended integers may be specified by using the letter o. 

Here are three more command line options. The first takes an integer, the second takes a floating point number, and the third takes an extended integer:

 

my $retries = 0;my $somefloat = 0;my $einteger = 0;...GetOptions('force' =>  $force, 'server=s' =>  $server, 'retries=i' =>  $retries, 'somefloat=f' => 
 $somefloat, 
'einteger=o'
 =>  $einteger);

 

Now we can call the program like this:

 

$ program --retries=3 –somefloat=3.14 --einteger=0xFF

 

Say we try to pass the wrong kind of value to an option, though, like this:

 

$ program --retires=enough

 

We're passing a string where the program expects a float. If you run this, though, you'll notice that Getopt::Long complains:

 

Value "hi" invalid for option somefloat (real number expected)

 

In this case, the value is not assigned to the variable. 



 
 
>>> More Perl Programming Articles          >>> More By Peyton McCullough
 

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