In this chapter, I do not pretend to offer a comprehensive primer on debugging. The following tips and techniques, however, should improve on your current set of error-fixing skills.
Use a source code debugger
The single most effective thing you can do to minimize the time spent debugging your code is to use a source code debugger. One is now available in just about every PL/SQL Integrated Development Environment (IDE). If you are using Quest’s Toad or SQL Navigator, Allround Automations’ PL/SQL Developer, or Oracle JDeveloper (or any other such GUI tool), you will be able to set visual breakpoints in your code with the click of a mouse, step through your code line by line, watch variables as they change their values, and so on.
The other tips in this section apply whether or not you are using a GUI-based debugger, but there is no doubt that if you are still debugging the old-fashioned way (inserting calls to DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE in dozens of places in your code), you are wasting a lot of your time. (Unfortunately, if your code is deployed at some customer site, debugging with a GUI tool is not always possible, in which case you usually have to resort to some sort of logging mechanism.)
Gather as much data as possible about when, where, and how the error occurred. It is very unlikely that the first occurrence of an error will give you all the information you will want or need to figure out the source of that error. Upon noticing an error, the temptation is to show off one’s knowledge of the program by declaring, “Got it! I know what’s going on and exactly how to fix it.” This can be very gratifying when it turns out that you do have a handle on the problem, and that may be the case for simple bugs. Some problems can appear simple, however, and turn out to require extensive testing and analysis. Save yourself the embarrassment of pretending (or believing) that you know more than you actually do. Before rushing to change your code, take these steps:
Run the program again to see if the error is reproducible
Narrow the test case needed to generate the error
Examine the circumstances under which the problem does not occur
The more information you gather about the problem at hand, the easier it will be to solve that problem. It is worth the extra time to assemble the evidence. So even when you are absolutely sure you are on to that bug, hold off and investigate a little further.
Remain logical at all times
Symbolic logic is the lifeblood of programmers. No matter which programming language you use, the underlying logical framework is a constant. PL/SQL has one particular syntax. The C language uses different keywords, and the IF statement looks a little different. The elegance of LISP demands a very different way of building programs. But underneath it all, symbolic logic provides the backbone on which you hang the statements that solve your problems.
The reliance on logical and rational thought in programming is one reason that it is so easy for a developer to learn a new programming language. As long as you can take the statement of a problem and develop a logical solution step by step, the particulars of a language are secondary.
With logic at the core of our being, it amazes me to see how often we programmers abandon this logic and pursue the most irrational path to solving a problem. We engage in wishful thinking and highly superstitious, irrational, or dubious thought processes. Even though we know better—much better—we find ourselves questioning code that conforms to documented functionality, that has worked in the past, and that surely works at that moment. This irrationality almost always involves shifting the blame from oneself to the “other”—the computer, the compiler, Joe, the word processor, whatever. Anything and anybody but our own pristine selves!
When you attempt to shift blame, you only put off solving your problem. Computers and compilers may not be intelligent, but they’re very fast and very consistent. All they can do is follow rules, and you write the rules in your program. So when you uncover a bug in your code, take responsibility for that error. Assume that you did something wrong—don’t blame the PL/SQL compiler, Oracle Forms, or the text editor.
If you do find yourself questioning a basic element or rule in the compiler that has always worked for you in the past, it is time to take a break. Better yet, it is time to get someone else to look at your code. It is amazing how another pair of eyes can focus your own analytical powers on the real causes of a problem.
Analyze instead of trying
So you have a pile of data and all the clues you could ask for in profiling the symptoms of your problem. Now it is time to analyze that data. For many people, analysis takes the following form: “Hmm, this looks like it could be the answer. I’ll make this change, recompile, and try it to see if it works.”
What’s wrong with this approach? When you try a solution to see what will happen, what you are really saying is:
To truly solve a problem, you must completely analyze the cause of the problem. Once you understand why the problem occurs, you have found the root cause and can take the steps necessary to make the problem go away in all circumstances.
When you identify a potential solution, perform a walk-through of your code based on that change. Don’t execute your form. Examine your program, and mentally try out different scenarios to test your hypothesis. Once you are certain that your change actually does address the problem, you can then perform a test of that solution. You won’t be trying anything; you will be verifying a fix.
Analyze your bug fully before you test solutions. If you say to yourself, “Why don’t I try this?” in the hope that it will solve the problem, then you are wasting your time and debugging inefficiently.
Take breaks, and ask for help
We are often our own biggest obstacles when it comes to sorting out our problems, whether a program bug or a personal crisis. When you are stuck on the inside of a problem, it is hard to maintain an objective distance and take a fresh look.
When you are making absolutely no progress and feel that you have tried everything, try these two radical techniques:
When I have struggled with a bug for any length of time without success, I not only become ineffective, I also tend to lose perspective. I pursue irrational and superstitious leads. I lose track of what I have already tested and what I have assumed to be right. I get too close to the problem to debug it effectively.
My frustration level usually correlates closely to the amount of time I have sat in my ergonomic chair and perched over my wrist-padded keyboard and stared at my low-radiation screen. Often the very simple act of stepping away from the workstation will clear my head and leave room for a solution to pop into place. Did you ever wake up the morning after a very difficult day at work to find the elusive answer sitting there at the end of your dream?
Make it a rule to get up and walk around at least once an hour when you are working on a problem—heck, even when you are writing your programs. Give your brain a chance to let its neural networks make the connections and develop new options for your programming. There is a whole big world out there. Even when your eyes are glued to the monitor and your source code, the world keeps turning. It never hurts to remind yourself of the bigger picture, even if that only amounts to taking note of the weather outside your air-conditioned cocoon.
Even more effective than taking a break is asking another person to look at your problem. There is something entirely magical about the dynamic of adding another pair of eyes to the situation. You might struggle with a problem for an hour or two, and finally, at the exact moment that you break down and explain the problem to a coworker, the solution will jump out at you. It could be a mismatch on names, a false assumption, or a misunderstanding of the IF statement logic. Whatever the case, chances are that you yourself will find it (even though you couldn’t for the last two hours) as soon as you ask someone else to find it for you.
And even if the error does not yield itself quite so easily, you still have lots to gain from the perspective of another person who (a) did not write the code and has no subconscious assumptions or biases about it, and (b) isn’t mad at the program.
Other benefits accrue from asking for help. You improve the self-esteem and self-confidence of other programmers by showing that you respect their opinions. If you are one of the best developers in the group, then your request for help demonstrates that you, too, sometimes make mistakes and need help from the team. This builds the sense (and the reality) of teamwork, which will improve the overall development and testing efforts on the project.
Change and test one area of code at a time
One of my biggest problems when I debug my code is that I am overconfident about my development and debugging skills, so I try to address too many problems at once. I make five or ten changes, rerun my test, and get very unreliable and minimally useful results. I find that my changes cause other problems (a common phenomenon until a program stabilizes, and a sure sign that lots more debugging and testing is needed), that some, but not all, of the original errors are gone, and that I have no idea which changes fixed which errors and which changes caused new errors.
In short, my debugging effort is a mess, and I have to back out of changes until I have a clearer picture of what is happening in my program.
Unless you are making very simple changes, you should fix one problem at a time and then test that fix. The amount of time it takes to compile, generate, and test may increase, but in the long run you will be much more productive.
Another aspect of incremental testing and debugging is performing unit tests on individual modules before you test a program that calls these various modules. If you test the programs separately and determine that they work, when you debug your application as a whole (in a system test), you do not have to worry about whether those modules return correct values or perform the correct actions. Instead, you can concentrate on the code that calls the modules. (See the earlier section “Testing PL/SQL Programs,” for more on unit testing.)
You will also find it helpful to come up with a system for keeping track of your troubleshooting efforts. Dan Clamage, a reviewer for this book, reports that he maintains a simple text file with running commentary of his efforts to reproduce the problem and what he has done to correct it. This file will usually include any SQL written to analyze the situation, setup data for test cases, a list of the modules examined, and any other items that may be of interest in the future. With this file in place, it’s much easier to return at any time (e.g., after you have had a good night’s sleep and are ready to try again) and follow your original line of reasoning.
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