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How the program works - Oracle

This is part 11 of a series of articles focusing on database interactions with Oracle PL/SQL. In my previous article, I introduced the concept of the explicit cursor and looked at several approaches for using the explicit cursors. In this article, we shall delve more deeply into explicit cursors.

  1. Database Interaction with PL/SQL: Explict Cursors in Depth
  2. Working with more than one cursor
  3. How the program works
  4. Further approaches to the above program
  5. Cursors with parameters – a complicated example
  6. Can we use JOINS in cursors?
By: Jagadish Chatarji
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August 02, 2005

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Let me explain each of the statements individually.

  cursor c_emp is

        select ename,deptno from emp;

The above statement declares a cursor ‘c_emp’ which can hold all employee names and department numbers from the table ‘emp’.

cursor c_dept is

        select deptno,dname from dept;

The above statement declares a cursor ‘c_dept’ which can hold all department numbers and department names from the table ‘dept’.

r_emp   c_emp%rowtype;

  r_dept      c_dept%rowtype;

The above two statements declare two variables, each based on its own cursor type. That means ‘r_emp’ can hold both the employee name and the department number at one time; similarly, ‘r_dept’ can hold both department number and department name.  Each of those variables can hold only one row (one set of values) from their respective cursors at a time.

open c_dept;


        fetch c_dept into r_dept;

        exit when c_dept%notfound;

The first statement opens the cursor ‘c_dept’. We start a loop to fetch each and every row from ‘c_dept’. We fetch each and every successive row from ‘c_dept’ into ‘r_dept’ (for every iteration). And finally we exit the loop, if the fetch could not find any row to fetch.




The above statements display the current department name fetched in the form of a heading.

open c_emp;


              fetch c_emp into r_emp;

              exit when c_emp%notfound;

Now, we fetch each and every row from cursor ‘c_emp’ into ‘r_emp’ using a loop.

if r_emp.deptno = r_dept.deptno then


  end if;

I am checking whether the ‘deptno’ of ‘r_dept’ (currently related to the outer loop) is matching with the ‘deptno’ of ‘r_emp’ or not. If it matches, the employee belongs to that department. So we immediately display the employee name.

end loop;

        close c_emp;

  end loop;

  close c_dept;


Finally, we close each of the cursors, based on the termination of the respective loops. 

>>> More Oracle Articles          >>> More By Jagadish Chatarji

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