On an administrative level, you should never grant access to the mysql.user table to any non-administrative accounts. Passwords in the user table are stored in encrypted form, but in versions of MySQL earlier than 4.1, knowing the encrypted password for an account makes it possible to connect to the server using that account.
When you run a client program to connect to the MySQL server, it is inadvisable to specify your password in a way that exposes it to discovery by other users. The methods you can use to specify your password when you run client programs are listed here, along with an assessment of the risks of each method:
Use a -pyour_pass or --password=your_pass option on the command line. For example:
shell> mysql -u francis -pfrank db_name
This is convenient but insecure, because your password becomes visible to system status programs such as ps that may be invoked by other users to display command lines. MySQL clients typically overwrite the command-line password argument with zeros during their initialization sequence, but there is still a brief interval during which the value is visible.
Use a -p or --password option with no password value specified. In this case, the client program solicits the password from the terminal:
shell> mysql -u francis -p db_name Enter password: ********
The '*' characters indicate where you enter your password. The password is not displayed as you enter it.
It is more secure to enter your password this way than to specify it on the command line because it is not visible to other users. However, this method of entering a password is suitable only for programs that you run interactively. If you want to invoke a client from a script that runs non-interactively, there is no opportunity to enter the password from the terminal. On some systems, you may even find that the first line of your script is read and interpreted (incorrectly) as your password!
Store your password in an option file. For example, on Unix you can list your password in the [client] section of the .my.cnf file in your home directory:
If you store your password in .my.cnf, the file should not be accessible to anyone but yourself. To ensure this, set the file access mode to 400 or 600. For example:
shell> chmod 600 .my.cnf
Section 3.3.2, "Using Option Files," discusses option files in more detail.
Store your password in the MYSQL_PWD environment variable. This method of specifying your MySQL password must be considered extremely insecure and should not be used. Some versions of ps include an option to display the environment of running processes. If you set MYSQL_PWD, your password will be exposed to any other user who runs ps. Even on systems without such a version of ps, it is unwise to assume that there are no other methods by which users can examine process environments. See Appendix B, "Environment Variables."
All in all, the safest methods are to have the client program prompt for the password or to specify the password in a properly protected option file.
4.5.7 Using Secure Connections
Beginning with version 4.0.0, MySQL has support for secure (encrypted) connections between MySQL clients and the server using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol. This section discusses how to use SSL connections. It also describes a way to set up SSH on Windows.
The standard configuration of MySQL is intended to be as fast as possible, so encrypted connections are not used by default. Doing so would make the client/server protocol much slower. Encrypting data is a CPU-intensive operation that requires the computer to do additional work and can delay other MySQL tasks. For applications that require the security provided by encrypted connections, the extra computation is warranted.
MySQL allows encryption to be enabled on a per-connection basis. You can choose a normal unencrypted connection or a secure encrypted SSL connection according to the requirements of individual applications.
188.8.131.52 Basic SSL Concepts
To understand how MySQL uses SSL, it's necessary to explain some basic SSL and X509 concepts. People who are already familiar with them can skip this part.
By default, MySQL uses unencrypted connections between the client and the server. This means that someone with access to the network could watch all your traffic and look at the data being sent or received. They could even change the data while it is in transit between client and server. To improve security a little, you can compress client/server traffic by using the --compress option when invoking client programs. However, this will not foil a determined attacker.
When you need to move information over a network in a secure fashion, an unencrypted connection is unacceptable. Encryption is the way to make any kind of data unreadable. In fact, today's practice requires many additional security elements from encryption algorithms. They should resist many kinds of known attacks such as changing the order of encrypted messages or replaying data twice.
SSL is a protocol that uses different encryption algorithms to ensure that data received over a public network can be trusted. It has mechanisms to detect any data change, loss, or replay. SSL also incorporates algorithms that provide identity verification using the X509 standard.
X509 makes it possible to identify someone on the Internet. It is most commonly used in e-commerce applications. In basic terms, there should be some company called a "Certificate Authority" (or CA) that assigns electronic certificates to anyone who needs them. Certificates rely on asymmetric encryption algorithms that have two encryption keys (a public key and a secret key). A certificate owner can show the certificate to another party as proof of identity. A certificate consists of its owner's public key. Any data encrypted with this public key can be decrypted only using the corresponding secret key, which is held by the owner of the certificate.
If you need more information about SSL, X509, or encryption, use your favorite Internet search engine to search for keywords in which you are interested.
To use SSL connections between the MySQL server and client programs, your system must be able to support OpenSSL and your version of MySQL must be 4.0.0 or newer.
To get secure connections to work with MySQL, you must do the following:
Install the OpenSSL library. We have tested MySQL with OpenSSL 0.9.6. If you need OpenSSL, visit http://www.openssl.org.
When you configure MySQL, run the configure script with the --with-vio and --with-openssl options.
Make sure that you have upgraded your grant tables to include the SSL-related columns in the mysql.user table. This is necessary if your grant tables date from a version prior to MySQL 4.0.0. The upgrade procedure is described in Section 2.5.8, "Upgrading the Grant Tables."
To check whether a running mysqld server supports OpenSSL, examine the value of the have_openssl system variable:
mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'have_openssl'; +---------------+-------+ | Variable_name | Value | +---------------+-------+ | have_openssl | YES | +---------------+-------+
If the value is YES, the server supports OpenSSL connections.
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