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The MMAP System Call in Linux

In this third part of a seven-part series on Linux I/O file system calls, you'll learn how to use the mmap() system call, which will give you some flexibility when handling files. This article is excerpted from chapter four of the book Linux System Programming: Talking Directly to the Kernel and C Library, written by Robert Love (O'Reilly, 2007; ISBN: 0596009585). Copyright © 2007 O'Reilly Media, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission from the publisher. Available from booksellers or direct from O'Reilly Media.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. The MMAP System Call in Linux
  2. The page size
  3. Return values and error codes
  4. Associated signals
By: O'Reilly Media
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December 11, 2008

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Mapping Files into Memory

As an alternative to standard file I/O, the kernel provides an interface that allows an application to map a file into memory, meaning that there is a one-to-one correspondence between a memory address and a word in the file. The programmer can then access the file directly through memory, identically to any other chunk of memory-resident data—it is even possible to allow writes to the memory region to transparently map back to the file on disk.

POSIX.1 standardizes—and Linux implements—themmap()system call for mapping objects into memory. This section will discussmmap()as it pertains to mapping files into memory to perform I/O; in Chapter 8, we will visit other applications ofmmap().

mmap( )

A call to mmap() asks the kernel to map lenbytes of the object represented by the file descriptorfd, starting atoffsetbytes into the file, into memory. Ifaddris included, it indicates a preference to use that starting address in memory. The access permissions are dictated byprot, and additional behavior can be given byflags:

  #include <sys/mman.h>

  void * mmap (void *addr,
               size_t len,
               int prot,
               int flags,
               int fd,
               off_t offset);

The addr parameter offers a suggestion to the kernel of where best to map the file. It is only a hint; most users pass 0. The call returns the actual address in memory where the mapping begins.

Theprotparameter describes the desired memory protection of the mapping. It may be eitherPROT_NONE, in which case the pages in this mapping may not be accessed (making little sense!), or a bitwise OR of one or more of the following flags:

PROT_READ
   The pages may be read.

PROT_WRITE
   The pages may be written.

PROT_EXEC
   The pages may be executed.

The desired memory protection must not conflict with the open mode of the file. For example, if the program opens the file read-only,protmust not specifyPROT_WRITE.


Protection Flags, Architectures, and Security

While POSIX defines four protection bits (read, write, execute, and stay the heck away), some architectures support only a subset of these. It is common, for example, for a processor to not differentiate between the actions of reading and executing. In that case, the processor may have only a single “read” flag. On those systems, PROT_READ implies PROT_EXEC. Until recently, the x86 architecture was one such system.

Of course, relying on such behavior is not portable. Portable programs should always setPROT_EXECif they intend to execute code in the mapping.

The reverse situation is one reason for the prevalence of buffer overflow attacks: even if a given mapping does not specify execution permission, the processor may allow execution anyway.

Recent x86 processors have introduced the NX (no-execute) bit, which allows for readable, but not executable, mappings. On these newer systems,PROT_READno longer impliesPROT_EXEC.


Theflagsargument describes the type of mapping, and some elements of its behavior. It is a bitwise OR of the following values:

MAP_FIXED

Instructsmmap()to treataddr as a requirement, not a hint. If the kernel is unable to place the mapping at the given address, the call fails. If the address and length parameters overlap an existing mapping, the overlapped pages are discarded and replaced by the new mapping. As this option requires intimate knowledge of the process address space, it is nonportable, and its use is discouraged.

MAP_PRIVATE

States that the mapping is not shared. The file is mapped copy-on-write, and any changes made in memory by this process are not reflected in the actual file, or in the mappings of other processes.

MAP_SHARED

Shares the mapping with all other processes that map this same file. Writing into the mapping is equivalent to writing to the file. Reads from the mapping will reflect the writes of other processes.

EitherMAP_SHAREDorMAP_PRIVATEmust be specified, but not both. Other, more advanced flags are discussed in Chapter 8.

When you map a file descriptor, the file’s reference count is incremented. Therefore, you can close the file descriptor after mapping the file, and your process will still have access to it. The corresponding decrement of the file’s reference count will occur when you unmap the file, or when the process terminates.

As an example, the following snippet maps the file backed byfd, beginning with its first byte, and extending forlenbytes, into a read-only mapping:

  void *p;

  p = mmap (0, len, PROT_READ, MAP_SHARED, fd, 0);
  if (p == MAP_FAILED)
          perror ("mmap");

Figure 4-1 shows the effects of paramaters supplied withmmap()on the mapping between a file and a process’ address space.


Figure 4-1.  Mapping a file into a process' address space



 
 
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