In a modern system, the relative performance gap between disks and the rest of the system is quite large—and widening. The worst component of disk performance is the process of moving the read/write head from one part of the disk to another, an operation known as a seek. In a world where many operations are measured in a handful of processor cycles (which might take all of a third of a nanosecond each), a single disk seek can average over eight milliseconds—still a small number, to be sure, but 25 million times longer than a single processor cycle!
Given the disparity in performance between disk drives and the rest of the system, it would be incredibly crude and inefficient to send I/O requests to the disk in the order in which they are issued. Therefore, modern operating system kernels implement I/O schedulers, which work to minimize the number and size of disk seeks by manipulating the order in which I/O requests are serviced, and the times at which they are serviced. I/O schedulers work hard to lessen the performance penalties associated with disk access.
To understand the role of an I/O scheduler, some background information is necessary. Hard disks address their data using the familiar geometry-based addressing of cylinders, heads, and sectors, or CHS addressing. A hard drive is composed of multiple platters, each consisting of a single disk, spindle, and read/write head. You can think of each platter as a CD (or record), and the set of platters in a disk as a stack of CDs. Each platter is divided into circular ring-like tracks, like on a CD. Each track is then divided up into of an integer number of sectors.
To locate a specific unit of data on a disk, the drive’s logic requires three pieces of information: the cylinder, head, and sector values. The cylinder value specifies the track on which the data resides. If you lay the platters on top of one another, a given track forms a cylinder through each platter. In other words, a cylinder is represented by a track at the same distance from the center on each disk. The head value identifies the exact read/write head (and thus the exact platter) in question. The search is now narrowed down to a single track on a single platter. The disk then uses the sector value to identify an exact sector on the track. The search is now complete: the hard disk knows what platter, what track, and what sector to look in for the data. It can position the read/write head of the correct platter over the correct track, and read from or write to the requisite sector.
Thankfully, modern hard disks do not force computers to communicate with their disks in terms of cylinders, heads, and sectors. Instead, contemporary hard drives map a unique block number (also called physical blocks or device blocks) over each cylinder/head/sector triplet—effectively, a block maps to a specific sector. Modern operating systems can then address hard drives using these block numbers—a process known as logical block addressing (LBA)—and the hard drive internally translates the block number into the correct CHS address.* Although nothing guarantees it, the block-to-CHS mapping tends to be sequential: physical blockntends to be physically adjacent on disk to logical blockn+ 1. This sequential mapping is important, as we shall soon see.
Filesystems, meanwhile, exist only in software. They operate on their own units, known as logical blocks (sometimes called filesystem blocks, or, confusingly, just blocks). The logical block size must be an integer multiple of the physical block size. In other words, a filesystem’s logical blocks map to one or more of a disk’s physical blocks.